The present richly illustrated study deals with the Neolithic and Chalcolithic anthropomorphic figurines of Cyprus. The profound analysis is supplemented by a comprehensive catalogue, assembling and describing all figurines. In particular, the so-called cruciform figurines, which became emblematic of prehistoric Cyprus, have aroused special interest from the beginning. Even though many scholars have studied the Cypriot figurines in the past, the majority have focused on a limited set of objects, either stylistically, chronologically, geographically or with regard to specific materials. Furthermore, excavations, conducted in the last decades, have considerably broadened the figurative repertoire. However, a comprehensive examination of the whole assemblage based on the current state of research, the aim of this investigation, was hitherto still missing. To date, almost all prehistoric Cypriot figurines, except some rare and definitely male specimens, are usually regarded as representations of females, sometimes even as precursors of Aphrodite, thereby viewing them as depictions of a goddess. This hitherto existing perception that the Cypriot prehistoric representations are generally meant to depict women, which became generally excepted and unchallenged, constitutes one of the major concerns of this study. By means of a systematic and detailed analysis of all available information the present study seeks to examine the prehistoric Cypriot figurines within their context. That means not only to investigate the different categories of anthropomorphic representations themselves, but further to explore the evolution, the usage and function as well as the chronological and spatial distribution of these intriguing human depictions as far as possible, and by doing so attempts to attain a better understanding of their significance and meaning within the prehistoric Cypriot society.